Rewriting Possibility: 80%
Nature of Man Man has evolved for hundreds or even thousands of years but there are things that didn’t change in him like human habits, instincts, and behavior. Wrath, for example is a man’s nature wherein he puts all his effort to overpower the opposition. Man is truly a competitive creature. Another nature of man is Avarice, avarice is when one finds something desirTABLE and he will immediately want all of it or want all the possible quantity he can get. Greed is an example of Avarice. Ungainliness, another human nature wherein a person who so much value his possessions as to not allow anyone o even have a touch, glimpse, taste, etc. Or his possession. Covetousness or envy is a nature of man which is a lust for possession that someone has. The last nature of man is Pride, pride is when someone who is good at something then being strict on someone who is not good at what he is doing, its like putting himself in superiority amongst those who cannot par with him (A. Robs, 1940). Cruelty of Man Kathleen Taylor is of the view that cruelty is the epitome of human evil. She has two claims about the cruelty of man. The first is that cruelty is not the domain of evil man or in-born evildoers.
Rather, much cruel behavior is rational, that is, it is done because of reasons which seem rather good to the perpetrators at the time, and can be done by people. She said that even in the most extreme act of cruelty, the perpetrators know what they are doing. The second claim of her book is that there is a difference between someone who is hurling verbal abuse and to someone who is beating someone to death and there is a difference in degree noting kind. You can now imagine a continuum of cruelty, from mildest to the most extreme acts, thoughts, and behaviors.
David Frankfurter notes in his book on myths of evil conspiracy, evil’, like ‘cruel’, is used to distance its target from the self or the in group, pushing away entities we do not want to resemble from those who are like us. Kathleen Taylor also states that cruelty is a moral concept, closely related to other moral concepts such as punishment, justification, and responsibility. Also, cruelty, first and foremost, is doing harm Webster Dictionary defines cruelty as an act which causes pain or suffering in which the doer is at best indifferent to, at worst gratified by, the suffering he/she causes.
Cruelty is about qualities of character and behavior; persons and their actions are babbled as ‘cruel’. Behavior comes first. Cruel is extended from action to the perpetrator primarily because of behavior, and then later, given stereotypes, to other aspects of person such as savage appearance, fierce expression, or vicious reputation. We can extend cruelty within the skull?to thoughts, desires, and intentions?but even these have to be articulated, whether internally or externally, expresses in action or speech. Only then, having given life by action, can they be judged and labeled cruel.
Human beings naturally use the language of agency. Agency is that power of voluntary choice; the bevel of control over and ownership of one’s actions considered typical of healthy adult humans. We think in terms of beliefs or desires, intentions and reason to act. K. Taylor (2009), concludes that cruelty is as old as humankind, if not older. Its core lies unjustified voluntary behavior which causes foreseeTABLE suffering to a victim or victims. It can be physical aggression or psychologically as long as it causes pain and suffering. Reasons Why Humans Do Harm Kathleen Taylor states that humans have evolved automatic response to threats.
Because of pathogens, poisons, predators changed only slowly; hearts allowed them to develop specific ‘program’ threat responses?physiological changes, feelings, and behaviors which were triggered automatically by certain stimuli. Humans have evolved instincts of predation and scavenging. This reason is why humans learned how to hurt, and also because of human nature, humans learn to harm other humans or species for their own safety. Fear-triggering threat is a kind of threat which has been around long enough for humans to have evolved responses to them.
They are also afraid of their own species Human beings can be unpredicTABLE and lethal. Moreover, some are much more powerful than others, whether because of physical strength, skill with weapons, or because their high social status gives them allies. Those who could assess the power of others accurately, and whose fear of the powerful made them behave submissively, were less likely to provoke aggression from their social superiors. Some other kinds of threats that humans faced are anger- provoking, and disgust provoking.
Kathleen Taylor summarized that human beings harm for many reasons: to save their lives, to preserve or enhance their social position, to teach the young, to enforce reciprocity, and so on. Morally speaking, these things are used to evade the charge Of cruelty, especially when the threat of a clear and present danger to life, limb, group equilibrium, or public morals. Some forms of harms are used to enforce social distance in response to threats and may not seem particularly serious. She said that cruelty is also a defended against a deadly threat to our identity?defined symbolically, not physically?to a distanced observer, or victim (K.
Taylor, 2009). Animal Rights White (2006), says that man causes a great deal of animal suffering. Likewise, DRP. Sam Vitamins, in his book, “Animal Rights”, inflicting pain is wrong to either an or humans. Man has no right to inflict pain nor decide whether right or wrong of inflicting pain to those with whom he cannot communicate like the animals. Pain is a subjective experience. You cannot decide whether someone is in pain or not, you can only rely based on what the subject’s report, but then again the subject’s report is the weakest kind Of proof to tell whether someone is in pain, it cannot be verified.
And if you cling to this descriptive- behavioral-phenomenological definition of pain then animals are qualified as well. Animals show reactions ascribed to the pain of humans and they port of feeling pain though they can’t say it verbally. Inflicting pain is generally immoral and it automatically applies to animals. There are exceptions: it is permissible to kill an inflict pain so as to prevent greater evil, to protect life, and when reasonTABLE and feasible alternative is availTABLE (DRP. Sam Vain, 2001). However, animals have a lower moral status than humans.
Animals have rights, but they are weaker than human rights so you are allowed to treat animals that you can’t do to humans (J. E. White, 2006). There are many views of what are animal rights, but they have one thing in common, it is avoiding n inflicting harm on animals without good reasons. Duties of Man to Animals Emmanuel Kant maintains that you have no direct duties to animals because they are not self-conscious. Your duties to animals are merely indirect duties to human beings; for example, you should not be cruel to animals because this tends to produce cruelty to humans.
Bandmaster speaks of duties towards beings which are beneath us and beings which are above us. But so far as animals are concerned, we have no direct duties. Singer, however, states that animals are conscious and they are capTABLE of feeling pain or pleasure so they have moral sanding. And you have the moral duty not to cause animals to suffer without good reason. The fact that species does not interbred proves that we are not dissimilar as we think we think we are, and cruelty against another species will not make us superior nor inferior. Animals kill other animals because it is in natural law, but animals don’t inflict unnecessary pain.
Waste and pain are morally wrong. Moreover, DRP. Sam cites that “the attempt to claim moral responsibility is reserved to the human species is self defeating. If it is so, then you definitely have a moral obligation towards the weaker and the meeker. If it isn’t, what right do you have to decide who shall live and who shall die (in pain)? ” This statement is saying that humans are superior beings so we should protect and take care of those who are in our power just like protecting a child, we should take care also of animals and the environment. Having Animal as Pets Also, DRP.
Sam states that having a pet gives us two psychological defense mechanisms and they are projection and narcissism. He describes projection as a defense used to cope up with stress either internal or external stresses. It it is also a defense for having a emotional conflict with other persons. He claims that in case of pets, projection works through anthropomorphism, humans attribute traits, behavior, needs, wishes, etc. To pets. This motivates you to take care for pets and cherish them. In the book, he also claims that caring for pets comprises of frustration and satisfaction.
He views that pet- owners employ a psychological defense mechanism known as “cognitive dissonance”- to suppress the negative effects of raising a pet. He says that pet-owners is possibly an irrational vocation, but humans even from ancient times, keep raising pets. He claims that pets serves as surrogate children and reined. Most people want their pets and love them. They are attached to them and sometimes mourn for them when their pets die. Most pet-owners find keeping pets emotionally fulfilling, happiness inducing, and highly satisfying. He claims that people keep pets because it provides them with narcissism.
Relationship Between Humans and Animals Animals supplies food, drink, loyalty, companionship and they can also provide hours of entertainment. The only differences are social awareness and language ability. Yes it is amazing how animals satisfy many needs that humans have. Http://answers. Yahoo. Com/question/ From the book, “T he Complex Relationship between Man and Manias” Marsh (2001 ) cites that “moorland is centered entirely around instinct and sustenance and realize that whatever reciprocated affection feel from him is more than likely just a byproduct Of his knowledge that I’m a provider of food and shelter.
He appears to like being petted, but what does that mean? It’s a one-way street. He certainly can’t return any such affection. ” Animals as Source of Entertainment Yes, animals are part of amusements like zoos, circuses, marine parks, and rodeos. But didn’t you even pause for a moment and think if they are being u applied by their daily needs? Just think of how many animals were captured and separated by their babies or group. Then taken off to your nearest zoo or marine park where they are forced to live in a new environment and then starved to be trained for our own amusement. Http://www. Nuthatch. Com/ entertainment. HTML “Animals are treated routinely, systematically as if their value was reducible to their usefulness to others, they are routinely, systematically treated with a lack of respect, and thus are their rights routinely, systematically violated. “( Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 201 1) Animals As Sources of Food Food has a very big role in our daily lives. Without ditty won’t last for 3 days. Half of these food you consume are animals. Consuming poultries, chickens, and fish has been part of your generation, like serving turkey as dinner for thanks giving day.
Imagine being on a parallel universe where animals are humans and humans are animals. You feed them and take care of them giving them food and water. Then they slaughter you and sell you to the market. How will you feel about that? Animals can feel. They can feel your love, care for them. So you should not abuse that. Http://mm/. Assistance. Erg/news/ ? Animal _ show=news;newsier=9834 “Factory farming, the most common method used to convert animal bodies into relatively inexpensive food in industrialized societies today.
An estimated 8 billion animals in the United States are born, confined, biologically manipulated, transported and ultimately slaughtered each year so that humans can consume them. -(John M. Gristlier, 2004) The elements in which these animals are raised and the method of slaughtering cause vast amounts of suffering. Given that animals suffer under such process and assuming that suffering is not in their interests, then the practice of factory farming would only be morally justifiTABLE if its abolition. Animals As Friends Many people are pet lovers. Some even treat them as humans and spoil them with food and toys.
Animals are faithful pals who make them laugh, keep them company and love them no matter what. In times of tragedy, you can also count on them to save you like these dog who saved a 11 year old boy from a cougar attack, Or these dolphin who rescued a surfer from a shark attack. Animals are such wonderful creatures, they are a true friend not a slave. Http:/Ann.. Today. Com/id/36834168/site/today’s/NSA/today today_pets_and_animals/t/pet-saviors-animals-who-saved-human-lives/#. OUR- paybacks ‘The saying goes “Dogs are man’s best friend” which is quite true dogs will except any human, who treats them with care and respect as their own.
But all animals can be a man’s best friend it depends on the human which pet really suits their need. ” – Allison Ford, Man’s Best Friend: Why Some Animals Make Better Pets. Animals As Enemies There are about 1,250,000 identified species of animal. This includes 1, 190,200 invertebrates, among them 950,000 insects, 70,000 mollusks, 40,000 crustaceans, and 130,200 others. There are about 58,800 identified vertebrates, including 29,300 fish, 5,743 amphibians, 8,240 reptiles, 9,800 birds, and 5,416 mammals. Some of them are friendly, weird looking, smelly, cute, and dangerous. But did you even wondered, why some of them are dangerous?
Yes some are naturally born to kill and to be killed. But others are not. Animals do this kind of things to protect themselves from humans. A great example of these are sharks. Yes they have razor like teeth, they are born cold blooded. Millions of people die and injured because of shark attacks. But half of the causes of shark deaths are not because of other animals or due to old age. It is because of humans and the factories that have been polluting their environment. “Animals protect themselves in many ways. All animals have their own hazards. Animals can only be your enemy if you will be a threat to them.
Animals are good they tend to act wild when people around them are dangerous for them. ” Marsha Walton, Animal enemies: Myth vs.. Reality’) Steps When Man Began His Cruelty To Animals To begin discussing the history of animal cruelty’ is to go back to ancient times. Fighting dogs for sport, for example, has been traced back as far as he 12th Century, after the war that ensued when the Romans invaded Britain. The British, though they lost the war, delighted in the tenacity and endurance of their dogs, and began exporting them for use in pit fights against larger animals like wild boar and bulls.
For centuries these fights occurred across Europe until the baiting of larger animals was prohibited in 1835. At this point, dog-on-dog combat became the cheaper, legal alternative and the fighting dogs, as well as the taste for the brutal blood sport was exported to other countries including the United States (Violoncello 2007). Cockfighting (a fight between two game roosters) has its roots deep in American history and culture, with many of the founding fathers being fond of (and participating in) the blood sport.
It wasn’t until June of 2007 that cockfighting was made illegal in Louisiana, the last of the 50 states to ban the activity – though the ban did not take effect until August of 2008 (Wisped). Though illegal throughout the US at this point, cockfighting still occurs with disturbing frequency across the country, particularly in the rural south and in areas with immigrant populations in whose home countries cockfighting may till be legal and part of the cultural norm.
Of course, animal fighting is only one of the many types of animal cruelty, and each has a different history and timeline. The abuse of farm animals in factory farms, for example, did not see an influx until the early 1 9th century, when small family farms and traditional ranching of livestock started to cave under the pressure of larger institutional farming practices (Bower). As factory farms became the norm, so, unfortunately did the systematic and prolonged abuse of animals raised for human consumption.
Most animals in these facilities are forced to endure hysterical and psychological abuse for months if not years on end, deprived of the ability to perform behaviors inherent to their species, and housed in overcrowded facilities with insufficient food, water and natural light. Most are given steroids to enhance growth, and antibiotics to fend off illnesses that are likely to occur in such unsanitary conditions.
Their eventual slaughter is often performed in a manner as inhumane as the condition in which they are forced to exist until that day. There are many people working for the improvement of the ways in which animals who are raised for food are anteed and slaughtered. Most noTABLE is Temple Grinding. She is one of the leading authorities on the design of animal handling facilities, specializing in the humane handling of animals at the point of slaughter in the meat industry.
She is credited with having “done more to improve welfare for animals at the point of slaughter than any human alive. ” (The Guardian, 10/25/05) -By American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Steps When Men Began His Cruelty To Animals Step 1 : Animal abuse happens all over the world. Especially in third world countries, even with the laws. People may not think that a circus has animal abuse but it is probably the only animal abuse that people can get away with.
Step 2: Passive cruelty is typified by cases of neglect, where the crime is a lack of action rather than the action itself – however do not let the terminology fool you. Severe animal neglect can cause incredible pain and suffering to an animal. Examples of neglect are starvation, dehydration, parasite infestations, allowing a collar to grow into an animal’s skin, inadequate shelter in extreme weather conditions, and failure to seek veterinary care when an animal needs deiced attention.
In many cases of neglect where an investigator feels that the cruelty occurred as a result of ignorance, they may attempt to educate the pet owner and then revisit the situation to check for improvements. In more severe cases however, exigent circumstances may require that the animal is removed from the site immediately and taken in for urgent medical care. Step 3: When a cat plays with a mouse I doubt that it is cruelty because cats don’t have the abstract understanding that humans have. When a human does the same sort of thing and they do then it is cruelty because they do understand.
Step 4: Some of the reasons of why this happens, is because animals are made into easy targets and by people torturing animals, they get their own benefits like eating meat or wearing animal fur, using them as furniture and even sports, like dogfights or that sports where bulls are tortured to death Steps: When people are cowards, they have been hurt by other people but can ‘t get “revenge” with the people, so they take out their anger on helpless animals. Also, people may get angry easily and hurt their animals for hardly any reason.
Rarely, though people may not realize, they are abusing animals, like f they don’t know horses and cows need a large area to stay in and food and water Steps: Active cruelty implies malicious intent, where a person has deliberately and intentionally caused harm to an animal, and is sometimes referred to as ANA (Nor-Accidental Injury). Acts Of intentional cruelty are often some Of the most disturbing and should be considered signs of serious psychological problems. This type of behavior is often associated with sociopaths behavior and should be taken very seriously.
Animal abuse in violent homes can take many forms and can occur for many reasons. Many times a parent or domestic partner who is abusive may kill, or threaten to kill, the household pets to intimidate family members into sexual abuse, to remain silent about previous or current abuse, or simply to psychologically torture the victims, flexing their “power’ . MANS ACTS OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS Cruelty to animals by happens in some unique and different ways. Humans treat animals against their own rights. Some of them use animals as an experimental body.
Others, especially scientists make them as an example for their experiment. For some sort Of reasons the animal body can react just like unman body. Animal experiments have been used for centuries to study physiological processes and to develop new medical methods. However, there have been opponents of these experiments for just as long. The Senate Commission on Animal Protection and Experimentation study the following: Animals As Experiment Subjects Scientists are accused of giving humans the priority over animals.
Another point of criticism is that the results of animal experiments cannot be transferred to man and that animals are made to suffer just to satisfy scientific curiosity. Some of the original experiments on animals now really do appear cruel – but the same applies to surgery on man in the same period. The main reason is that the operative techniques and possibilities for anesthesia were inadequate. The discovery of anesthesia was a blessing for both animals and man and is now a routine in animal experiments. (p. 5) In order to settle everything, rules and regulations are applied in the field of experiments with the usage of animals.
According to the Canadian Council on Animal Care, “Animals must not be subjected to unnecessary pain or distress. The experimental design must offer them every practicTABLE safeguard, whether in research, in teaching, or in testing procedures; (Ethics of Animal Investigation, CA, 1989). Any investigator must follow the three Or’s in experimenting with the usage of animals: Replacement of animals with other, non-sentient material or with animals of lower sentience; Reduction of numbers of animals used; and Refinement of technique, “to reduce to an absolute minimum amount of distress imposed on animals.
Animals As Gambling Subjects Lastly, humans practices cruelty to animals by letting them fight. Animals experience fighting each other by man’s interest like dog fighting, cocky sighting and hog-dog fighting. According to Craig Boyd, “Animal fighting activities attract other serious crimes, such as gambling, drug dealing, weapons offenses and money laundering. Children are commonly present at animal fighting events. Pet theft to acquire bait animals is also a common byproduct crime. “(Animal legal defense fund, 2009).
Animal fighting is a contest in which people urge two or more animals to fight for the purpose of human entertainment. In some instances, one of the animals may be a bait animal used for the ostensible purpose of sport or training. Animal fighting re categorized in two types, the organized and non-organized. Organized animal fighting according to Craig Boyd is usually a secretive industry and very difficult for law enforcement to infiltrate. Accordingly, it is rare for investigators to find a fight in progress.
In organized animal fighting cases In which law enforcement officers are TABLE to seize the animals in a raid, there are usually a large number of animals who must be catalogued as evidence, provided with medical treatment, and sheltered during the pungency of the court case The non-organized animal fighting did not consist Of any help from he authority. This is the independent type of animal fighting in which the doers doesn’t mind if the animal will die. However, both type according to the animal defense fund can consider as an illegal act against animal rights.
According to them, “A state’s criminal animal cruelty statutes may address animal fighting generally or may identify specific types of animal fighting, such as dogfights, cockfighting or hog-dog fighting as unlawful”. Boyd, C. (2009, February). Animal legal defense fund. Retrieved February 2009, from lady. Org: http://dif. Org/article. PH? Id=92 Government’s Action Against Cruelty The searchers tend to research what are the government’s action regarding animal cruelty.
The PAWS (Philippine Animal Welfare Society) study the following: In Philippines, PAWS has monitored about 100 cases of animal cruelty in year 2012, many of which are ignored due to lack of penalties against animal abuse. According to the PAWS’ director, Anna Caber, the organization had receives daily a 40 calls on animal abuse daily. One good reason to support the House Bills 3369 ( authored by representatives Ma. Amelia Claims-Violators and Anthony College. ), 5849 (Reps. Barnett Hearer-Day and Angelo Palmtops), 6089( Rep. Reynolds Mali), 6094( Reps. Angelo Palmtops, Ma.
Isabel Climax and Jane Castro), and 6605( Reps. Doodads MacDougal-Arroyo and Gloria MacDougal Arroyo) which all seek to amend Republic Act No. 8485 otherwise known as the Animal Welfare Act of 1998. And which tackles about welfare obligations and offenses to animals, and seeks to impose penalties on maltreatment and killing of animals. PAWS’ director Caber said in a report, “Humans are very confident on abusing animals because there are no consequences”. House Bill 5849 seeks to put violators of the animal welfare law behind bars for six (6) to twelve (12) years ND to increase the fine to P 10,000. 0. RA 8485 only imposes six (6) months to two (2) years jail time and fines only up to p 5,000. 00 for offenders. It also wants to prevent violators from owning pets. PAWS’ spokesperson Heart Evangelists said that there’s still needs to amend Animal Welfare Act. (Hanson, 2012). Many people support this fight against animal cruelty. According to the report of Allay Hanson, last September 4,201 2 a number of supporters many clad in t-shirt declared, “amend the Animal Welfare Act”, showed up to the senate for a much-awaited hearing led Seen.